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History of the Middle Ages in Europe

History of the Middle Ages in Europe

middle age

This period is also called the Middle Ages or the Middle Ages, and before delving into the history of the Middle Ages in Europe, this period of history must be known.  

With the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and it lasted until the Renaissance, and the Middle Ages have three periods: the Early Middle Ages the Middle Ages and the Late Middle Ages In the article on the history of the Middle Ages in Europe, the conditions of Europe will be identified during this period of time.


In the early Middle Ages of the history of the Middle Ages in Europe, the name of the northerners was given to the group of peoples that inhabited the Scandinavian island and the Baltic Sea basin, and they and the Germans were of the Nordic race alike, but the northerners, unlike the Germans were not affected by Latin influences, but rather remained far from it by virtue of  Their geographical position is in the far north-west of Europe, which is why they were called Northerners

And the northerners at that time were pagans, and their thinking had no room for anything of conscience or dhimma, or a sense of sin or virtue Because their gods, such as the god of thunder, Thor, and the god of wars and epics, Odin, did not pray for any of that.

Rather these gods did not have anything to deter the murderer, adulterer or thief, or punish him for his sin.

At the end of the eighth century AD, from the history of the Middle Ages in Europe, it was revealed to those peoples who were able to adversity that large countries were overflowing with easy spoils, so they rushed to them, gathering numbers of seamen, shipbuilders, and many

professions such as loggers and fishermen, but they soon clashed  With the Saxons and the Franks on their way to the south, they turned towards the east and the west, and the Swedes spread the people of trade in the plains of present-day Russia while the Danes and the Norwegians took the people of the seas and piracy to come to Western Europe and plunder its churches of shiny gold and silver

At this stage in the history of the northerners, actions of the Swedes in particular seem worthy of attention, as they built a trading station on Lake Ladoga, and their stations have become centers for guiding travelers, and models of order among the Saqlab people who were

pervaded by imbalance and chaos, and the Swedish leader Rorke is credited with laying the foundation stone that was built Russia in Novgorod and Kiev, and the term Ruotsi, which the Finns called their Swedish neighbors since their early days in the Baltic Sea basin, has passed from vassal to subordinate, and has become a science on the slabs that make up present-day Russia,

and from this it is clear that Russia owes its first experience in political life to The northerners, or in particular the Swedes who succeeded in ruling in Kyiv.

intellectual movement and the religious movement

Crusades in the history of the Middle Ages in Europe affected the conditions of trade and politics, which affected Western Europe. 

Intellectual life seemed to be on the cusp of a more profound kind of impact in its results than what happened in the fields of trade and politics.  

Its scope” is similar in its vitality and creativity to the great European Renaissance movement, which separates modern times from the Middle Ages That is because the thirst for knowledge began to appear again in Europe since the eleventh century AD, that is, since the political conditions began to be stable, and the movement between the countries became safe, so life came to life again to study law, medicine, logic and theology, and the paths and paths leading to the countries that were famous for their existence were built Both schools are excellent in these sciences.

In contrast to the University of Bologna, the most famous European college for the study of law, the study of theology, not law, prevailed at the University of Paris in the history of the Middle Ages in Europe, as the administration was in the hands of a union of teachers, not students It remained a subject of suspicion for a long time, which the local ecclesiastical bodies considered illegitimate bodies that wanted to eliminate the powers of the bishop and the men of the episcopate, and this suspicion was

supported by the unbridled intellectual outburst of Paris, because of the free dialectical movement that was aroused by the fire of Peter Abelard who enabled Paris to  It becomes a center for free thought and scientific research.

When Aristotle books became accessible to university studies in Paris, a group of clergymen made a sincere effort to adapt the contents of these huge books from the vast ancient knowledge and ancient thought to a strict tool that was used to support the Catholic doctrine and establish it in the hearts, and from the University of Paris, the University of Oxford branched out in a year 1168 AD, and from Oxford, Cambridge grew in 1309 AD, and the English student in the twelfth century AD was like a crusader,

and Latin was the common language among educated people throughout Western Europe This is because these two universities are notorious for their high heels in scholastic philosophy, without other European universities.

Contemporaries witnessed that this epidemic focused on choosing the young and the strong over other people, and that it took pity on its victims, taking them quickly at times.

One of the worst social consequences that resulted from this tragic human catastrophe was that many European cities carried out a series of atrocities against their Jewish residents, when the raids burned thousands of Jews, believing that the plague was a malicious plot of the high race to eliminate Catholic Christianity, and the plague disaster in The history of the Middle Ages in Europe had other,

 less horrific consequences than the incidents of the burning of the Jews In Florence, some surrendered themselves to various kinds of pleasures, including striking themselves with iron whips as atonement for the sins of the sinners of the people Smaller and people returned to normal life.

science and culture

The first centuries of the history of the Middle Ages in Europe, especially from the fifth century AD until the end of the tenth century AD, were like being dark, as civilization in Western Europe fell into decline, and only a few schools of monasteries and cathedrals remained from the knowledge of the ancient Romans.  Which were quoted from the Greek are almost extinct, and the educated class that received sciences was few, and many of the old technical and technical skills have been lost, and the book became

As a result of rampant ignorance, they accept popular narratives as if they were true, unlike Muslims, whose life was brighter and who lived in civilizational and cultural richness such as medicine and mathematics, as these sciences moved from Spain to the West at a later time, and economic and political life in Europe began to recover at the beginning of the twenty-first century  The tenth century AD, which in turn led to a tremendous development in culture during the twelfth century AD.